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# Gauge boson strong nuclear force

The gauge boson, or the force interaction particle, of the strong nuclear force is the gluon. This particle was so named because it's the glue that holds the quarks together. Without this strong.. In particle physics, a gauge boson is a force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature, commonly called forces. Elementary particles, whose interactions are described by a gauge theory, interact with each other by the exchange of gauge bosons—usually as virtual particles. All known gauge bosons have a spin of 1; for comparison, the Higgs boson has spin zero. Therefore, all known gauge bosons are vector bosons. Gauge bosons are. The weak nuclear force is a short-range force, behaving as if the gauge bosons are very heavy. In order to make a gauge-invariant theory work for the weak nuclear force, theorists had to come up with a way to make heavy gauge bosons in a way that wouldn't destroy the consistency of the quantum theory What is the gauge boson of the strong nuclear force? W. Gluon. Z. Photon . Submit. More Quizzes What disease crippled President Franklin D. Roosevelt and led him to help the nation find a cure?? What is the shape of the toy invented by Hungarian professor Ernő Rubik?

### What is the gauge boson of the strong nuclear force

1. These forces are: Electromagnetic, Gravity, Strong Nuclear Force, and Weak Nuclear Force. The class of gauge bosons contains 4 particles: The gluon, the photon, the Z boson, and the W boson. Each of these particles helps to enforce or carry one of the fundamental forces of nature, other than gravity
2. Gluon - Gluons mediate the interactions of the strong nuclear force, which binds together quarks to form protons and neutrons and also holds the protons and neutrons together within an atom's nucleus. W Boson - One of the two gauge bosons involved in mediating the weak nuclear force
3. The gauge bosons (the particles that carry the four forces and mediate exchanges, AKA interactions, of the forces) are the graviton (gravitational force), the photon (electromagnetic force), the gluon (strong force), and the W+Z bosons (weak force). There is another boson (that isn't a gauge boson) called the Higgs boson
4. That's exactly what that diagram shows! Collisions occur through some mediating force, which must be carried by a gauge boson. In this case, the weak force, and W+/W-/Z 0. When electrons scatter off of each other, the force is mediated by a photon, the gauge boson for the electromagnetic force
5. In particle physics, the W and Z bosons are vector bosons that are together known as the weak bosons or more generally as the intermediate vector bosons. These elementary particles mediate the weak interaction; the respective symbols are W+, W−, and Z0. The W± bosons have either a positive or negative electric charge of 1 elementary charge and are each other's antiparticles. The Z0 boson is electrically neutral and is its own antiparticle. The three particles have a spin of 1.

They communicate information about the four fundamental forces between particles (gravity, electromagnetism, weak nuclear force, and strong nuclear force). Therefore, each type of force is associated with one or more gauge bosons. Let's start by examining the electromagnetic force and its gauge boson, the photon. Photon SU (2) (W-boson, Z-boson). It controls aspects of the beta decay. The strong nuclear force is described by a gauge field with gauge group the special unitary group SU (3) (QCD (gluon) The road of gaining mass for gauge boson: interpretation of Nobel Prize in physics 2013 gauge particles which mediate interaction forces and newly discovered Higgs boson. just like original Yukawa's proposal that pions——the mediator of the strong nuclear force are massive

A gauge boson is a force-carrying elementary particle, as per the standard model. A gauge boson has integral spin, and follows Bose-Einstein statistics. In terms of quantum field theory(QFT), a gauge boson can be considered a quanta, an excitation.. The four fundamental forces—the weak nuclear force, the strong nuclear force, the electromagnetic force and the gravitational force each have their own specific type of boson, known as a gauge boson. Interaction of gauge bosons results in the manifestation of the forces that control our natural world The Z boson and W boson are both much more massive than the other gauge bosons that mediate the other forces (the photon for electromagnetism and the gluon for the strong nuclear force). The particles are so massive that they decay very quickly in most circumstances

Model in particle physics in which, at high energies, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model comprising the electromagnetic, weak, and strong forces are merged into a single force. Although this unified force has not been directly observed, the many GUT models theorize its existence. Wikipedi Strong nuclear force- this is a force that binds quarks (particles which we will learn about later) together to form hadrons (particles made up of quarks). It is the strongest of the four forces but is only dominant at sub-atomic level. Weak nuclear force- it is an interaction between subatomic particles that is responsible for radioactive decay The nuclear force is now understood as a residual effect of the even more powerful strong force, or strong interaction, which is the attractive force that binds particles called quarks together, to form the nucleons themselves. This more powerful force is mediated by particles called gluons, which are a type of gauge boson

gauge boson. n. (Nuclear Physics) physics a boson that mediates the interaction between elementary particles. There are several types: photons for electromagnetic interactions, W and Z intermediate vector bosons for weak interactions, and gravitons for gravitational interactions We are not observing ang waves from the strong nuclear force becuause it is prevented from color confinement, which says that every quark and gluon can only exist as a pair, making the color white. Therefore, we cannot observe free gluons

The gauge bosons are the photon, which mediates the electromagnetic force, the gluon, which mediates the strong nuclear force, the intermediate vector bosons (the Z boson and the W boson), which mediate the weak nuclear force, and the hypothetical graviton, which mediates gravity. See Table at subatomic particle strong nuclear force provides and attra. after an alpha decay the proton number. after an alpha decay the nucleon number. Nucleons. 3 femtometres (3x10^-15) decreases by 2. Decreases by 4. provides force between Nucleons Weak Nuclear. The weak nuclear force acts between particles with a weak isospin, and corresponds to the gauge group SU(2). The weak nuclear force is responsible for radioactive decay, which plays an essential role in nuclear fission. It is carried by three types of boson, the massive W+, W- and Z bosons with a spin of 1 gauge boson (plural gauge bosons) (physics) Any of the fundamental particles that carry the fundamental forces of nature

### Gauge boson - Wikipedi

The nucleus has boson pion fields responsible for the strong nuclear force binding protons and neutrons against the electrostatic repulsion between protons. Such virtual pions are composed of quark antiquark pairs again held together by gluons An Introduction to the Standard Model. The four forces of nature are considered to be the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, which has residual effects, the weak nuclear force, and the strong nuclear force, which also has residual effects. Each of these forces reacts only on certain particles, and has its own range and force carrier, the particles that transmit the force, by. The interactions are simply forces between all particles (fermions and bosons) and are mediated by gauge bosons. These interactions are fundamentally four. Each depends on a specific property of the particles it is acting on (mass or charge, for example). Every fundamental force has associated gauge bosons According to wikipedia, a gauge boson is described as: Any (bosonic) particle that carries any of the fundamental forces of nature. This means that the particles will include one of the 4 known fundamental forces. These forces are: Electromagnetic, Gravity, Strong Nuclear Force, and Weak Nuclear Force Strong Nuclear Force (Boson = Gluon): The force that binds together quarks in protons and an atom's nucleus. This force when bound accounts for most of an object's mass. It is the strongest force, about 100 times stronger than electromagnetism, a million times stronger than weak interaction, and 1038 times stronger than gravitation at that range. [5

### Relativistic Quantum Gauge Field Theory- Gauge Boson

extra requirement that gauge particles of the theory must be massive, just like original Yukawa's proposal that pions——the mediator of the strong nuclear force are massive. Unfortunately, the gauge symmetry of non-abe-lian gauge theory prohibits the massive gauge boson. If we artiﬁcially add in a mass term by hand into the theory, th Shouldn't Gauge boson have a mass ? W and Z bosons are massive particles as demonstrated by Carlo Rubbia. (Remember, strong force is fundamental, the nuclear force is not) The nuclear force is now understood as a residual effect of the even more powerful strong force, or strong interaction, which is the attractive force that binds particles called quarks together to form the nucleons themselves. This more powerful force is mediated by particles called gluons. A gluon is a type of gauge boson

### Trivia World - What is the gauge boson of the strong

• FTP, identify this type of gauge boson, the exchange particle for the strong nuclear force, named for its ability to glue quarks together. Answer: gluons . 15) It decays after an average lifetime of 2.2 microseconds into an electron, a neutrino, and an antineutrino via the weak nuclear force
• Gluons: Force carriers that mediate the interaction of the strong nuclear force, which binds together Quarks to form Protons, Neutrons and also holds Protons or Neutrons together within an atom's nucleus. W Boson: one of the two gauge bosons involved in mediating the weak nuclear force
• gly simple building blocks of the elements were created moments after the theorized Big Bang once the temperature of the new universe dropped enough for the four fundamental forces (gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces) to split from the previous, relatively uniform state and the quadrupole, as discovered by George Smoot in the early 1990's.
• Actually, it's closer to 99% when it comes to protons and neutrons. Only about 1% of their masses come from the up and down quarks; the rest is binding energy. The strong force is unique among the fundamental forces in that its binding energy is p..
• Electromagnetic force- Photon; Strong nuclear force- The eight gluons ; Weak nuclear force- The W+,W- and Z bosons; Gravity- Graviton (the graviton is not a gauge boson, it is a tensor boson) The gauge bosons The graviton. The graviton is the hypothetical particle of gravity. We haven't discovered the graviton yet. The fact that each.
• And the weak nuclear force has the same range as the strong force, but, as its name implies, is nowhere near as strong, which is what accounts for the decay of radioactive material and the process of fusion which powers stars. Each of these forces has its own gauge boson which traverses between everything in the universe to convey the force
• The Strong Nuclear Force. The strong nuclear force is an interaction between color, and particles that possess color. Quarks possess one of three colors, green, red, or blue, and the strong force is an attractive force between these and the mediating particle, gluons. Gluons have two colors, one normal color and one anti-color

Gauge Bosons. The four fundamental forces which govern every interaction in the universe are gravity, electromagnetic force, weak nuclear force, and strong nuclear force. According to the Standard Model, each of these is mediated by the exchange of force-carrying bosons or gauge bosons \$\begingroup\$ @BenCrowell For a few reasons: 1) Defining it as such would mean that Compton scattering would not be associated with the action of the electromagnetic force, since it doesn't involve the exchange of a photon; 2) Defining it as such would include the exchange of a Higgs boson as associated with the action of a force, which is an idea I'm not sure has universal support; 3) Not.

It allows a quark or lepton to emit or absorb a Z boson. Strong Nuclear. The strong nuclear force acts between particles with a colour charge, and corresponds to the gauge group SU(3). It is the strongest fundamental force, and holds quarks together inside hadrons and holds nucleons together inside nuclei Hi PF I was wondering today about the origin of the fundamental forces. Now gravity comes from mass (lets call this massive charge), electromagnetism comes from electrical charge and the strong force comes from color charge. These are all kinds of charges, but what kind of charge gives.. Strong Nuclear Force is one of the fundamental interactions along with Gravity, electromagnetism, weak nuclear force. The strong nuclear force holds the most ordinary matter together because it confines quarks into hadron particles such as neutron and proton. The strong force binds neutrons and protons together to create atomic nuclei Strong force - force which binds quarks into hadrons; mediated by gluons. Electromagnetic Force - force between charged particles, mediated by photons. Weak force - force responsible for -decay. Mediated by W and Z bosons. Gauge boson - particle which mediates a force. Lepton - fermion which does not feel the strong interaction What does gauge-boson mean? Any of a subset of bosons that are elementary particles and mediate one of the four fundamental forces of nature. The ga which mediates the strong nuclear force, the intermediate vector bosons (the Z boson and the W boson), which mediate the weak nuclear force, and the hypothetical graviton, which mediates.

The cool thing about gauge bosons is that they are force-carriers. In other words, one can think of them as mediators for three of the four fundamental forces: strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions. It turns out that there are 4 gauge bosons: gluon, photon, Z boson and W boson (the Z and W bosons transmit the weak force) Strong nuclear force; Weak nuclear force. The wiggly line is a force particle (boson) which, in this case, mediates electromagnetic interactions: it is the photon. The y-axis in a Feynman diagram represents time. Examples of a Feynman Carriers or exchange particles of the weak nuclear force are the gauge bosons called the W and Z bosons The strong interaction, or strong nuclear force, is the most complicated interaction, mainly because of the way it varies with distance. It increases indefinitely with distance, ultimately exceeding the energy required for pair creation, altering the character of the hadron involved The Strong Nuclear Force binds together quarks to form nucleons, in turn, it also acts to bind these nucleons together, forming atomic nuclei. It is a gauge boson, in that it mediates one of the fundamental forces. In the case of the photon, it is the electromagnetic force

### Video: Unlocking The Secrets of The Standard - Model Part 3

Nuclear force is the residual effect of the strong force which is felt by the nucleons. Thus nuclear force can be considered as an effect of strong interaction just like van der Wall force is electrostatic in nature. Keep this clear in mind. Strong nuclear force = Fundamental force which holds quarks together The strong nuclear force is carried by the gluon (g), and the gravitational force is carried by the graviton (G). The weak nuclear force comes in two categories: the charge-changing (charged-current, for short) mediated by the W ± bosons, and the neutral-current weak interactions mediated by the Z 0 boson A helium-4 nucleus (the most common type of helium) is technically a boson, as it contains four hadrons, or two protons and two neutrons, or 6 up quarks and 6 down quarks. However, a helium nucleus may not have some properties of elementary bosons. • Photon (γ) - The carrier of the electromagnetic force* and is a gauge boson Weak interaction, the weak force or weak nuclear force, is one of the four fundamental forces in the universe.. It is carried by particles known as the W and Z bosons, which are gauge bosons.The weak force causes beta decay, a form of radioactivity. At extremely high energy levels, the force of weak interaction and electromagnetism begin to act the same, and this is called electroweak interaction

### Definition of a Boson Particle - ThoughtCo

The fermion-boson nuclear state, like other physical states, must be electrically neutral, hence only the neutrinos (weak interaction) and neutrons (strong interaction) can form fermion - boson st. Multiple Choice 23.1 The Four Fundamental Forces 33 . --> Which of the following is not one of the four fundamental forces? gravity frictio Kinds of carrier boson: . gluon (10 facts) - The hypothetical particle that carries the force between quarks., Smallest bundle of the strong force field; messenger particle of the strong force., Quanta that carry the strong nuclear force. Like photons, vector bosons, and gravitons - the carriers respectively of electromagnetism, the weak force, and gravitation - gluons are massless bosons Gauge boson. Force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature, commonly called forces. Elementary particles, the strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, electromagnetism, and gravitation. Psychokinesis-Wikipedia

The strong nuclear force is one of the four fundamental forces in nature; the other three are gravity, electromagnetism and the weak force. As its name implies, the strong force is the strongest force of the four. It is responsible for binding together the fundamental particles of matter to form larger particles Gauge bosons: gluons, W + and W-bosons, Z 0 bosons, and photons. These bosons carry 3 of the 4 fundamental forces, and have a spin number of 1; Gluon: Gluons are massless and chargeless particles, and they are the carriers of the strong force interaction subatomic particle - subatomic particle - Four basic forces: Quarks and leptons are the building blocks of matter, but they require some sort of mortar to bind themselves together into more-complex forms, whether on a nuclear or a universal scale. The particles that provide this mortar are associated with four basic forces that are collectively referred to as the fundamental interactions of.

This is summarized in a theoretical model (concerning the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions) called the Standard Model. In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle whose substructure is unknown, The gauge boson is a force carrier of the fundamental interactions of nature. Higgs boson Gauge Boson: Gauge Boson are the particle that Carries the interaction of fundamental forces between particles. All known Gauge Boson have spin 1 and therefore all Gauge Boson are vector. •gauge boson is characterized into 5 categories. •Gluons(g): That carries strong nuclear forces between matter particle Entries with Z-boson boson: boson multiboson paraboson quasiboson vector boson W-boson X boson Z-boson Translations boson - particle Armenian: բոզոն‎ Basque:. gauge boson: Spanish: bosón de gauge‎ (masc.)See also gluon - strong nuclear force graviton - gravity photon - electromagnetism W-boson and Z-boson - weak nuclear. W-boson: W-boson (English) Alternative forms W. The strong nuclear force holds most ordinary matter together because it confines quarks into hadron particles such as the proton and neutron. On the smaller scale (less than about 0.8 fm, the radius of a nucleon), it is the force (carried by gluons) that holds quarks together to form protons, neutrons, and other hadron particles gauge boson (English) Noun gauge boson (pl. gauge bosons) (particle) Any of the fundamental particles that carry the fundamental forces of nature. Translations gauge boson - particle. Chinese: Mandarin: 規範玻色子‎, 规范玻色子‎ (guīfàn bōsèzǐ) Dutch: ijkboson‎ (neut.) Finnish: mittabosoni‎ French: boson de jauge‎ (masc.

Force boson synonyms, Force boson pronunciation, Force boson translation, English dictionary definition of Force boson. n. Any of a subset of bosons that are elementary particles and mediate one of the four fundamental forces of nature The strong nuclear force is one of the four fundamental forces in nature. It is responsible for binding together the fundamental particles of matter to form larger particles Study Particles (AS) flashcards from Francesca Massey's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. Learn faster with spaced repetition Sep 22, 2018 - The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth This page was last edited on 22 December 2019, at 18:17. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply

What does gluon mean? A massless, neutral vector boson that mediates strong interactions between quarks, binding them together within hadrons... A massless gauge boson that binds quarks together to form baryons, mesons and other hadrons and is associated with the strong nuclear force. massless gauge boson a gauge boson that mediates strong interaction among quark Physics quiz, Physics trivia, What is the gauge boson of the strong nuclear force The four gauge or vector bosons that act as a force carrier are gluons, photons, W bosons, and Z bosons. Gluons are the particle associated with the strong nuclear forces that hold the quarks together inside protons and neutrons

### There are Four Fundamental Forces - Fact or Myth

NUCLEAR PHYSICS ★ Patterns in Mechanical amplitudes for scattering via Gauge Boson Exchange. Dr M.A. T Lent 2004. 13 All (known) particle interactions can be explained by 4 fundamental forces: Strong Force (quarks) Strong Force (hadrons) Electromagnetic Force Dr M.A. T Lent 2004. 1 Force mediation . The particles that carry the four fundamental forces of the universe are bosons. Gluons carry the strong nuclear force, for example, and virtual photons carry the electromagnetic force. It is an exchange of these virtual particles, or gauge bosons, that creates the forces between two non-virtual particles Feng's group concluded that the particle in question, if it exists, is not a dark photon but what they called a protophobic gauge boson - a force carrying particle that interacts more readily with electrons and neutrons than it does protons. For other theorists, such unusual interactions cast doubt on the claimed discovery ELI5 What are Gauge Bosons? Physics. 6 comments. share. save. hide. report. 66% Upvoted. This thread is archived. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast. Sort by While the internal gluon expression of the strong force consists of an interaction among three quarks carrying 3 color charges (red/green/blue or red/green/yellow) exchanging a color-carrying gluon field, the strong force at the compound nuclear level consists of an interaction between two or more nucleons (protons and neutrons) carrying 2 quark flavor charges (up, down.

### How do the W and Z Gauge Bosons work in the weak nuclear

Nuclear force and Boson · See more usually by a gauge theory such as quantum chromodynamics, the quantum field theory of the strong interaction. New!!: In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force. mu neutrino, muon -tau neutrino, tao GAUGE BOSONS (Force Carrying Particles) Strong Force: gluon Electromagnetic Force: photon Weak Force: W boson, Z boson Higgs Particle FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS Strong Nuclear Force- force that binds nucleus Electromagnetic Force- can be attractive or repulsive Weak Nuclear Force- short ranged force present in. † Strong nuclear force - This force is responsible for binding the nuclei of atoms together. It must be stronger than the electric repulsion in order to keep protons force carrier particle, gauge boson, gauge connection or virtual photon. On The Principle of Holographic Scaling 1-3 The Higgs, though a boson (meaning it has a particular sort of value of a quantum-mechanical property known as spin), is not a gauge boson. Physicists need it not to transmit a force but to give. For example the photon carries the electromagnetic force, the gluon, the strong force, etc. How come we never hear of a force that the Higgs boson carries? Ramiro Rodriguez Dear Ramiro, The short answer is that you never hear of a force that the Higgs boson carries because it doesn't carry one. The longer answer is that not all bosons are.

### W and Z bosons - Wikipedi

The strong nuclear force acts on neutrons as well as protons. The carrier particle of the nuclear force is the gluon (see Section 10.14, Nuclear Structure).The strong nuclear force can be considered of equal strength for the proton-proton, proton-neutron, and neutron-neutron interactions. The stability of the nucleus is thus explained in terms of the competitive Coulomb repulsive. The strong nuclear force holds quarks together to form protons & neutrons, and holds protons & neutrons together in a nucleus (being stronger than the electromagnetic force repelling protons). (The strong force is also repulsive if protons and neutrons become too close.) The weak nuclear force causes transformation of protons to neutrons and vice-versa, along with other radioactive phenomena Strong Interactions and Nuclear Theory. The challenge of understanding strong interactions is a unifying theme that cuts across many areas of CTP research and also plays a central role in aspects of the physics of condensed matter and ultracold atoms. The interactions among quarks and gluons, described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), are.

The Strong Force. Our ideas about the strong force are based on the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), a quantum field theory that describes interactions between quarks and a set of particles called gluons, with spin 1, that act as the carrier particles.Quarks interact via electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions gauge boson: particle that carries one of the four forces hadrons: particles that feel the strong nuclear force leptons: particles that do not feel the strong nuclear force meson: hadrons that can decay to leptons and leave no hadrons muon family number Discovered in 1983 by physicists at the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN, the Z boson is a neutral elementary particle. Like its electrically charged cousin, the W, the Z boson carries the weak force. The weak force is essentially as strong as the electromagnetic force, but it appears weak because its influence is limited by the large mass of the Z and W bosons gauge boson: Any of a subset of bosons that are elementary particles and mediate one of the four fundamental forces of nature. The gauge bosons include the graviton, photon, gluons, and intermediate vector bosons

### nuclear force in nLab - ncatlab

A Possible Indication of a Light, Neutral Boson, 1504.01527 [nucl-ex], PRL 116, 042501 (2016) J. Feng et al., Protophobic Fifth Force Interpretation of the Observed Anomaly in 8Be Nuclear Transitions, 1604.07411 [hep-ph], PRL 117, 071803 (2016) J. Feng et al., Particle Physics Models for the 17 MeV Anomaly in Berylliu Gluon, the so-called messenger particle of the strong nuclear force, which binds subatomic particles known as quarks within the protons and neutrons of stable matter as well as within heavier, short-lived particles created at high energies. Quarks interact by emitting and absorbing gluons, just as electrically charged particles interact through the emission and absorption of photons and the strong gluons where the four pairs of forces of a diﬀerent nature are united. Some consequences and laboratory conﬁrmations of the discussed theory have been listed, in which graviton is predicted as a grand united gauge boson. Therefore, the gravitons constitute a natural light testifying in favor of gravitational force. The Weak Interaction Studies in Nuclear Beta Decay 341 Table 1. Gauge bosons and the forces Gauge boson Spin Charge Mass Force photon γ 1 0 0 electromagnetic W-boson W± 1 ± 1 80.4 GeV weak Z-boson Z0 1 0 91.2 GeV weak gluons g 1 0 0 strong graviton G 2 0 0 gravitation the magnitude of the gravitational force reaches extremely high values

Gauge boson - W and Z bosons - Boson - Gluon - Fundamental interaction - Higgs boson - Quark - Particle physics - Spin (physics) - Elementary particle - Standard Model - Force carrier - Photon - Electromagnetism - Weak interaction - Strong interaction - List of particles - Vector meson - Feynman diagram - Quantum field theory - Eigenvalues and eigenvectors - Planck constant - Mass in special. Strong nuclear force: The strong nuclear force acts between quarks (and between hadrons which are made up of quarks). The particle that carries the force is called the gluon (the physicists who labelled this particle decided against a poetic Greek name) gluon ( plural gluons ) ( physics) A massless gauge boson that binds quarks together to form baryons, mesons and other hadrons and is associated with the strong nuclear force. quotations . 1992 November 1, George Zebrowski; Marvin Mattelson, The Enigma of Distance, in Omni, volume 15, number 2, page 80: Naive realism might ask today: Tell. The weak nuclear force can only act over a distance on the order of magnitude of the nuclear size. Both the electromagnetic and weak force arise from gauge theories. This means the particles are representations of a group - or they define a mathematical structure whose elements interact in a definite way governed by the transformations of the groups

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